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As the chart currently stands, it includes classic studies, case reports, literature reviews and letters to the editor. A meta-analysis, critically evaluating study protocols, pooling studies with data, evaluating case reports and letters separately, etc. is clearly needed. Even in its present form, however, the chart highlights findings which are noteworthy.

Of the industry-sponsored articles, 74/74 (100%) attested to aspartame's safety. Of the non-industry sponsored articles, 84/91 (92%) identified a problem. The seven non-industry studies attesting to aspartame's safety were six studies from the FDA and one literature review reflecting almost exclusively the industry sponsored research.

One could argue that the FDA studies should not be considered truly "independent". The role of the FDA in aspartame's approval has been quite controversial and is a matter of public record. In 1980, the FDA appointed a Board of Public Inquiry to address the question of aspartame's safety. The Board concluded that some of Searle's test results were "bizarre" and recommended additional long-term testing prior to approval. Commissioner Arthur Hull Hayes overruled the Board and granted approval for aspartame's use in dry foods in 1981 and in beverages in 1983. Within 3 months of the 1983 approval, Hayes resigned from the FDA and accepted a position as a paid consultant to Searle's public relations firm. If the FDA studies and the literature review focusing only on the Nutrasweet® industry funded research are excluded, then 100% of the truly independently funded research demonstrated some type of adverse reaction to aspartame.

Whether 100% or 92%, the clear split in the literature, with outcome correlated so closely to funding source, is deeply troubling. In response to Table 1, and to answer many recent questions about their product, the Nutrasweet® Company released a bibliography of 269 studies ostensibly attesting to aspartame safety. (Table 2)

TABLE 2 Bibliography provided by the Nutrasweet Company


  1. Anderson, GH. Saravis, S. Schacher, R. Leiter, L. Zlotkin, S. Aspartame: effects on appetite and food intake of children. FASEB J. 2:A1197. 1988.
  2. Anderson, GH. Saravis, S. Schacher, R. Zlotkin, S. Leiter, LA. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite, and hedonic response in children. Appetite. 13:93-103. 1989.
  3. Anderson, GH. Leiter, LA. Effects of aspartame and phenylalanine on meal-time food intake of humans. Appetite. 11(s):48-53. 1988.
  4. Anderson, GH. Ryan-Harshman, M. Leiter, LA. Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior in adult males. Fed Proc. 45:590. 1986.
  5. Aspinall, RL. Saunders, PM. Pautxch, WF. Nutting, EF. The biological properties of aspartame v. effects on a variety of physiological parameters related to inflammation and metabolism. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 3:387-395. 1980.
  6. Baker, GL. Filer, LJ. Brummel, MC. Stegink, LD. Effect of aspartame loading upon plasma and red cell free amino acid. Fed Proc. 36:497. 1976.
  7. Baker, GL. Filer, LJ. Stegink, LD. Plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels in normal adults fed high protein meals: effect of added monosodium glutamate or monosodium glutamate plus aspartame. Fed Proc. 36:1154. 1977.
  8. Baker, GL. Filer, LJ. Stegink, LD. Plasma, red cell and breast milk ---- amino acid levels in lactating women administered aspartame or lactose at 50 mg/kg body weight. J Nutri 106(7):xxxiii. 1976.
  9. Baraniuk, JN. Follett, JV. Schiffman, SS. Massey, EW. Sampson, HA. Warwick, ZS. Buckley, CE. Immunophysiologic correlates of cutaneous histamine reactivity in patients with alleged aspartame sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 81(1):187. 1988.
  10. Bauer-Nehrling, JK. McLane, MP. Kobe, PJ. Kamath, SK. Horwitz, DL. Evaluation of aspartame in diabetes control. Diabetes. 32(s1):A64. 1983.
  11. Belger, A. Stokes, AF. Taylor, H. Banich, MT. Effects of acute aspartame ingestion upon the cognitive performance of pilots. Aviat Space Environ. Med May:-
  12. Benninger, C. Matthis, P. deSonneville, L. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, F. Bickel, H. Chronic high-dose aspartame ingestion does not affect electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral parameters in phenylketonuric heterozygotes. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 15(3):407. 1993.
  13. Benninger, C. Matthis, P. deSonneville, LMJ. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, FK. Bickel, H. High dose aspartame has no effect on EEC spectral parameters in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Soc Neurosci Abstr 17:504. 1991.
  14. Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. deSonneville, LMJ. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, FK. Bickel, H. Electro-encephalographic evaluation of chronic aspartame ingestion in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2:S58. 1993.
  15. Bettendorf, AF. Dailey, JW. Lasley, SM. Jobe, PC. Aspartame fails to facilitate bicuculline-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice. Soc Neurosci Abst. 15(1):47. 1989.
  16. Bialik, RJ. Li, ETS. Anderson, GH. Intragastric (IG) aspartame does not influence short-term food intake (FI) or selection when administered with a carbohydrate (CHO) load. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 14:1197. 1988.
  17. Bianchi, RG. Muir, ET. Cook, DL. Nutting, EF. The biological properties of aspartame ii. Actions involving the gastrointestinal system. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 3:355-362. 1980.
  18. Birch, LL. McPhee, L. Sullivan, S. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame. Physiol Behav. 45:387-395. 1989.
  19. Birch LL. The quantity and quality of young children's ad libitum consumption is influenced by the caloric density and type of sweetener in preloads. Fed Proc. 46:1340. 1987.
  20. Black, RM. Leiter, LA. Anderson, GH. Aspartame and water: short term enhancement and suppression of subjective appetite but not food intake. J Cell Biochem. Suppl 16B:261. 1992.
  21. Black, RM. Leiter, LA. Anderson, GH. Consuming aspartame with and without taste: differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males. Physiol Behav. 53(3):459-466. 1993.
  22. Black, RM. Tanaka, PA. Crombie, CA. Anderson, GH. Diet soft drinks, subjective hunger and food intake. FASEB J. 4(4);A940. 1990.
  23. Black, RM. Anderson, GH. High intensity sweeteners and behavior. J Am Diet Assoc. 90(9 Suppl):A-153. 1991.
  24. Black, RM. Leiter, L. Anderson, G. Aspartame sweetened soft drinks - volume, not aspartame, is responsible for appetite suppression. FASEB J. 5(5):A1314. 1991.
  25. Black, RM. Tham, L. Citron, ST. Sweetness vs. energy: how do aspartame and sugar affect subsequent food intake and subjective appetite. FASEB J. 8(4 pt II):A728. 1994.
  26. Black, RM. Tanaka, P. Leiter, LA. Anderson, GH. Soft drinks with aspartame - effect on subjective hunger, food selection and food-intake of young adult males. Physiol Behav. 49(4):803-810. 1991.
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  31. Burgert, SL. Anderson, DW. Stegink, LD. Takeuchi, H. Schedl, HP. Metabolism of aspartame and its L-phenylalanine methyl ester decomposition product by the porcine gut. Metabolism. 40(6):612-18. 1991.
  32. Burgert, SL. Merrick, RH. Cood, JD. Takeuchi, H. Stegink, LD. Intestinal metabolism of aspartame and its diketopiperzine and l phenylalanine methyl ester degradation products. Am J Clin Nutr. 41;867. 1985.
  33. Burgert, SL. Anderson, DW. Stegink, LD. Schedl, HP. Aspartame and phenylalanine methyl ester metabolism by the porcine gut. Clin Res. 32(4):762A. 1984.
  34. Burns, TS. Stargel, W. Tschanz, C. Kotsonis, F. Hurwitz, A. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino-acid ration in healthy subjects. Pharmacology. 43(4):210-219. 1991.
  35. Burns, TS. Stargel, WW. Hurwitz, A. Bioavailablity of phenylalnine and aspartate from aspartame (20 mg/kg) in capsules and solution. Metabolism. 39(11):1200-1203. 1990.
  36. Butchko, HH. Kotsonis, FN. Acceptable daily intake vs. actual intake: the aspartame example. J Am Coll Nutr. 10(3):258-266. 1991.
  37. Caballero, B. Mahon, BE. Rohr, FJ. Levy, HL. Wurtman, RJ. Plasma amino acid levels after single-dose aspartame consumption in phenylketonuria, mild hyperphenylalaninemia, and heterogygous state for phenylketonuria. J Pediatr. 109(4):668-71. 1986.
  38. Cain, DP. Boon,F. Bevan, M. Failure of aspartame to affect seizure susceptibility
  39. Canty, DJ. Chan, MM. Effects of consumption of caloric vs. noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 53(5):1159-64. 1991.
  40. Canty, DJ. Chan, MM. The effect of consumption of caloric versus noncaloric sweet drinks or indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 88(9s):53. 1988.
  41. Carlson, HE. Shah, JH. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin and glucose in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 49:427-432. 1989.
  42. Carlson, HE. Shah, JH. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin and glucose in normal humans. Clin Res. 36(3):354A. 1988.
  43. Cho, ES. Coon, JD. Stegink, LD. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame. Food Chem Toxicol. 25:499-504. 1987.
  44. Colas-Linhart, N. Melchior, JC. Rigaud, D. Assan, P. Apfelbaum, M. Bok, B. Plasma beta endorphin response to sucrose or aspartame drinks in man. Pro Chin Acad Med Sci Peking Union Med Coll. 3(3)s1:52. 1988.
  45. Curtius, HC. Endres, W. Blau, N. Effect of high-protein meal plus aspartame ingestion on plasma phenylalanine concentrations in obligate heterozygotes for phenylketonuria. Metabolism. 43(4):413-416. 1994.
  46. Dailey, JW. Lasley, SM. Burger, RL. Bettendorf, AF. Mishra, PK. Jobe, PC. Amino-acids, monoamines, and audiogenic-seizures in genetically epilepsy-prone rats - effects of aspartame. Epilepsy Res. 8(2):122-133. 1991.
  47. Dailey, JW. Lasley, SM. Frasca, J. Jobe, PC. Aspartame is not pro-convulsant in the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR). Pharmacologist. 29:142. 1987.
  48. Dailey, JW. Bettendorf, AF. Lasley, SM. Jobe, PC. Aspartame does not facilitate bicuculline-induced seizures in C57 mice. Pharmacology. 31(3):187. 1989.
  49. Dailey, JW. Bettendorf, AF. Lasley, SM. Jobe, PC. Effect of aspartame on maximal electroshock seizures in DBA/2 mice. Pharmacologist. 32(3):137. 1990.
  50. Dailey, JW. Lasley, SM. Bettendorf, AF. Burger, RL. Jobe, PC. Aspartame does not facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in genetically epilepsy-prone rats. Epilepsia. 29(5):651. 1988.
  51. Dailey, JW. Lasley, SM. Mishra, PK. Bettendorf, AF. Burger, RL. Jobe, PC. Aspartame fails to facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in CD-1 mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 98(3):475-486. 1989.
  52. Davoli, E. Cappellini, L. Airoldi, L. Fanelli, R. Serum methanol concentrations in rats and in men after a single dose of aspartame. Food Chem Toxicol
  53. De Sonneville, LMJ. Lang-Englert, B. Tretz, FK. Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. Bickel, H. Absence of neurobehavioral effects of high dose aspartame in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Soc Neurosci Abst. 17:1233. 1991.
  54. De Sonneville, L. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, F. Benninger, C. Matthis, P. Bickell, H. Aspartame has no effect on cognitive function in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (pkuh). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 15(3):406-407. 1993.
  55. De Sonneville, LMJ. Tretz, FK. Lang-Englert, B. Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. Bickel, H. Information processing in individuals heterozygous for phenylketonuria, given the sweetener aspartame which contains phenylalanine. Amino Acids. 9(1):14-15. 1995.
  56. Debler, EA. Reilly, MA. Flesicher, A. Lajtha, A. Aspartame treatment does not alter brain amino acides, amines, or related receptor kinetics in rats. J Neurochem. 52:S78. 1989.
  57. Diomede, L. Romano, M. Guiso, G. Caccia, S. Nava, S. Salmona, M. Interspecies and interstrain studies on the increased susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions in animals given aspartame. Food Chem Toxicol. 29(2);101-106. 1991.
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  59. Dodge, RE. Warner, D. Sangal, S. O'Donnell, RD. The effect of single and multiple doses of aspartame on higher cognitive performance in humans. Aviat Space Environ Med. May:A30. 1990.
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  61. Drewnowski, A. Massien, C. Louis-Sylvestre, J. Fricker, J. Chapelot, D. Apfelbaum, M. Comparing the effects of sucrose and aspartame on hunger, taste preferences and energy intakes in obese and lean women. Appetite. 24(1):66. 1995.
  62. Drewnowski, A. Massien, C. Louis-Sylvestre, J. Fricker, J. Chapelot, D. Apfelbaum, M. The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences and energy intakes in obese and lean women. Int J Obes. 18:570-578. 1994.
  63. Drewnowski, A. Louis-Sylvestre, J. Massien, C. Fricker, J. Chapelot, D. Apfelbaum, M. Effects of sucrose and aspartame on hunger, energy intake and tast responsiveness in normal-weight men and women. Appetite. 19(2):175. 1992.
  64. Drewnowski, A. Intense sweeteners and the control of appetite. Nutr Rev. 53(1):1-7. 1995.
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  111. Jobe, PC. Bettendorf, AF. Lasley, SM. Dailey, JW. Effects of aspartame on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions in CD-1 mice. Toxicologist. 8:85. 1988.
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  268. Zhi, J. Levy, G. Aspartame and phenylalanine do not enhance theophylline-induced seizure in rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 66:171-174. 1989.


The Nutrasweet® Company's bibliography of studies supporting the safety of aspartame contains many papers which do not fulfill the criteria for publication in peer-reviewed journals, with clear cut relevance for questions of human safety. Indeed, none of the 24 citations from either FASEB Journal or its predecessor, Federation Proceedings, could be retrieved by an author search in Medline, the largest database of peer reviewed medical journals. Many of the papers are of questionable relevance for issues of human safety. One ­ Frasca, MA and Alday CJ ­ The Single Patient Clinical Trial ­ does not even mention aspartame in the article summary.

The very first two citations of the bibliography set the tone for the rest of the document. The facts that the publications are in different journals (FASEB J 2:A1197, 1988, and Appetite 13:93- 103, 1989), that the titles are slightly different ("Aspartame: Effects on appetite and food intake of children" and "Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake appetite and hedonic response in children") and a slightly different sequence of the authors names (Anderson GH, Saravis S, Schacher R, Leither L, and Zlotkin S, for the first and Anderson GH, Saravis S, Schacker R, Zlotkin S, and Leiter LA, for the second) all imply that we are dealing with two different studies. In fact, however, we are dealing with a single study. The first is an abstract, identical word-for- word with the summary of the second. This pattern is repeated throughout the bibliography ­ the same study is cited multiple times, frequently with a different order for the authors, and with publication in different journals. Other examples where articles are either identical word for word or have such minor modifications and wording changes that they must clearly be considered the same study are listed below. Each numbered grouping consititutes what should in fact be one article.

1. Burns T, Stargel W, Tschanz C, Kotsonis F, Hurwitz A. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino-acid ratio in healthy-subjects. Pharmacology 43(4):210-219, 1991.

Stargel W, Burns T, Tschanz C, Hurwitz A, Kotsonis F. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino-acid ratio in healthy subjects. Amino Acids 1(1):154, 1991.

2 Anderson GH, Ryan-Harshman M, Leiter LA. Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior in adult males. Fed Proc 45:590, 1986.

Ryan-Harshman M, Anderson GH, Leiter LA. Phenylalanine and aspartame do not affect hunger, mood and arousal in men. Physiol Behav 39:247-253, 1987.

Ryan-Harshman M, Leiter LA, Anderson GH. Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior, mood and arousal in men. Physiol Behav 39:247-253, 1987.

All three of these studies are financed by the International Life Sciences Institute Nutrition Foundation.

3. Benninger C, Matthis P, DeSonneville L, Lanz-Englert B, Trefz F, Bickel H. Chronic high-dose aspartame ingestion does not affect electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral parameters in phenylketonuric heterozygotes. J. Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15(3):407, 1993.

Benninger, C. Matthis, P. deSonneville, LMJ. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, FK. Bickel, H. High dose aspartame has no effect on EEC spectral parameters in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Soc Neurosci Abstr 17:504, 1991.

Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. deSonneville, LMJ. Lanz-Englert, B. Trefz, FK. Bickel, H. Electroencephalographic evaluation of chronic aspartame ingestion in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2:S58, 1993.

De Sonneville, LMJ. Lang-Englert, B. Tretz, FK. Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. Bickel, H. Absence of neurobehavioral effects of high dose aspartame in phenylketonuric heterozygotes (PKUH). Soc Neurosci Abst. 17:1233, 1991.

De Sonneville, LMJ. Tretz, FK. Lang-Englert, B. Benninger, CK. Matthis, P. Bickel, H. Information processing in individuals heterozygous for phenylketonuria, given the sweetener aspartame which contains phenylalanine. Amino Acids. 9(1):14-15, 1995.

Trefz, F. De Sonneville, L. Matthis, P. Benninger, C. Lanz-Englert, B. Bickel, H. Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine). Hum Genet 93:369-374, 1994.

4. Karstaedt, PJ. Pincus, JH. Aspartame use in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 43:611-613, 1993.

Pincus, JH. Karstaedt, PJ. Aspartame use in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 42 (4 Suppl 3):420, 1992.

5. Reilly, MA. Lajtha, A. Aspartame does not affect aminergic and glutametergic receptor kinetics in rat brain. Annals NY Acad Sci 757;311-313, 1995.

Reilly, MA. Lajtha, A. Aspartame does not alter aminergic and glutametergic receptor kinetics in rat brain. FASEB J 10(3):A721, 1996.

6. Debler, EA. Reilly, MA. Flesicher, A. Lajtha, A. Aspartame treatment does not alter brain amino acids, amines, or related receptor kinetics in rats. J Neurochem 52:S78, 1989.

Reilly, MA. Debler, EA. Fleischer, A. Lajtha, A. Aspartame treatment does not affect brain amines and related receptor kinetics in rats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 14:925, 1988.

7. Drewnowski, A. Massein, C. Louis-Sylvestre, J. Fricker, J. Chapelot, D. Apfelbaum, M. Comparing the effects of sucrose and aspartame on hunger, taste preferences and energy intakes in obese and lean women. Appetite 24(1):66, 1995.

Drewnowski, A. Massein, C. Louis-Sylvestre, J. Fricker, J. Chapelot, D. Apfelbaum, M. The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences and energy intakes in obese and lean women. Int J. Obes. 18:570-578, 1994.

8. Geha, R. Buckley, CE. Greenberger, P. Patterson, R. Polmar, S. Saxon, A. Rohr, A. Yang, W. Drouin, M. Aspartame is no more likely than placebo to cause allergic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89(1):184, 1992.

Geha, R. Buckley, CE. Greenberger, P. Patterson, R. Polmar, S. Saxon, A. Yang, W. Drouin, M. Aspartame is no more likely than placebo to cause allergic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89(1):184, 1992.

Geha, R. Buckley, CE. Greenberger, P. Patterson, R. Polmar, S. Saxon, A. Rohr, A. Yang, W.Drouin, M. Aspartame is no more likely than placebo to cause urticaria/angioedema: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 92:513-520, 1993.

Geha, R. Buckley, CE. Greenberger, P. Patterson, R. Polmar, S. Saxon, A. Rohr, A. Yang, W. Drouin, M. No difference in allergic-type reactions after aspartame compared with placebo. Clin Exp Allergy 24(2):175, 1994.

9. Koeppe, RA. Shulkin, B. Rosenspire, KC. Shaw, D. Betz, AL. Mangner, TJ. Price, J. Agranoff, BW. Effect of aspartame-derived phenylalanine on neutral amino-acid uptake in human brain ­ a poitron emission tomography study. J Neurochem 56(5):1526-35, 1991.

Koeppe, RA. Rosenspire, KC. Price, J. Hichwa, RD. Mangner, TJ. Betz, AL. Agranoff, BW. Effect of dietary aspartame on human brain carbon-11 aminocyclohexanecarboxylate (ACHC) uptake. J Nucl Med 29(5s):784, 1988.

10. Kruesi, MJP. Sugar and aspartame: acute effects? Am Psychiatric Assoc Behavioral Effects of Foods Symposium. p.70. 1986.

Kruesi, MJP. Rapoport, JL. Cummings, M. Berg, CJ. Ismond, DR. Flament, M. Yarrow, M. Zahn-Waxler, C. Effects of sugar and aspartame on aggression and activity in children. Am J Psychiatry 144(11):1487-90, 1987.

Kruesi, MJP. Rapoport, JL. Cummings, M. Yarrow, M. Waxler, C. Flament, M. Berg, C. Sugar and aspartame challenge study in "sugar reactive" preschool children. Int J Neurosci 32(1-2):666, 1987.

11. Torii, K. Mimura, T. Takasaki, Y. Ichimura, M. Dietary aspartame with protein on plasma and brain amino acids brain monoamines and behavior in rats. Physiol Behav 36:765-771, 1986.

Torii, K. Mimura, T. Takasaki, Y. Ichimura, M. Effect of mealing on plasma and brain amino acid and brain monoamine in rats after oral aspartame. Physiol Behav 36:759-764, 1986.

12. Spiers, P. Wurtman, R. Schomer, D. Trefz, F. Wurtman, R. Aspartame ­ cognitive, behavioral, and electrophysiological aspects. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15(3):407, 1993.

Spiers, P. Schomer, D. Wurtman, R. Sabounjian, L. Reiner, A. Myers, D. Wurtman, J. Lack of neuropsychological effects from chronic or acute aspartame (nutrasweet) and sucrose consumption. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15(3):407, 1993.

13. Stargel, W. Burns, T. Tschanz, C. Hurwitz, A. Kotsonis, F. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects. Amino Acids 1(1):154, 1991.

Burns, TS. Stargel, W. Tschanz, C. Kotsonis, F. Hurwitz, A. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino-acid ration in healthy subjects. Pharmacology 43(4):210-219, 1991.

14. Stegink, LD. Filer, LJ. Baker, GL. Effect of plasma amino acid levels of monosodium 1-glutamate (msg) plus aspartame added to a high protein meal. Am J Clin Nutr 33:947, 1980.

Stegink, LD. Filer, LJ. Baker, GL. Effect of aspartame and monosodium glutamate (msg) upon plasma amino acids levels when ingested as part of a soup- beverage meal. Am J Clin Nutr 34:649, 1981.

These two articles warrant special discussion. Although they are obstensibly very different studies, the first being performed on six normal adults fed a high protein meal, the second involving a group of 9 adults fed a soup/beverage meal, some surprisingly similar data were obtained. Plasma aspartame and glutamate levels were obtained in each study. The initial value reported for the combined glutamate/aspartate level after the high protein meal was 5.86. The initial value after the soup/beverage meal was also 5.86. The next recorded value in the study involving the high protein meal, drawn after 30 minutes, was 9.29. The next recorded value in the other study, drawn after 15 minutes, was also 9.29.

15. Stegink, LD. Filer, LJ. Baker, GL. Plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels in normal adults given aspartame (APM) at 100 mg/kg body weight either in solution in slurry form. AM J Clin Nutr 30:620, 1977.

Stegink, LD. Filer, LJ. Baker, GL. Brummel, MC. Plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels of adult humans given 100 mg/kg body weight aspartame. Toxicology 14:131-140, 1979.

16. Stokes, AF. Belger, A. Banich, MT. Taylor, H. Effects of acute aspartame and acute alcohol ingestion upon the cognitive performance of pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med 62(7):648:53, 1991.

Stokes, AF. Belger, A. Banich, MT. Bernandine, E. Effects of alcohol and chronic aspartame ingestion upon performance in aviation relevant cognitive tasks. Aviat Space Environ Med 65(1):7-15, 1994.

17. Virtanen, SM. Rasanen, L. Paganus, A. Akerblom, HK. Intake of artificial sweeteners and sugars by adolescent diabetics. Acta Endocrinol 115:60, 1987.

Virtanen, SM. Rasanen, L. Paganus, A. Varo, P. Akerblom, HK. Intake of sugars and artificial sweeteners by adolescent diabetics. Nutr Rep Int 38(6):1211- 1218, 1988.

18. Wolraich, ML. Lindgren, S. Stumbo, P. Stegink, L. Appelbaum, M. Kiritsy, M. The effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on children's behavior and cognitive performance. Pediatr Res 33 (4Pt2):18A, 1993.

Wolraich, ML. Lindgren, S. Stumbo, P. Stegink, L. Appelbaum, M. Kiritsy, M. Effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on the behavior and cognitive performance of children. N Engl J Med 330(5):301-307, 1994.

19. Rolls, BJ. Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food-intake, and body-weight; a review. AM J Clin Nutr 53(4):872-878, 1991.

Rolls, BJ. Hetherington, M. Laster, LJ. Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake. Appetite 11(s):62-67, 1988.

20. Saravis, S. Schachar, R. Zlotkin, S. Leiter, LA. Anderson, GH. Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior and mood. Pediatrics 86(1):75-83, 1990.

Saravis, S. Schachar, R. Zlotkin, S. Leiter, L. Anderson, GH. Aspartame with carbohydrate fails to affect food intake, appetite, motivation, mood, learning and behavior in children. Soc Neurosci Abstr 13(2):30, 1987.

21. Schiffman, S. Aspartame and headache: no association found in clinical study. Cephalalgia 9(s10):101-102, 1989.

Schiffman, SS. Buckley, CE. Sampson, HA. Massey, EW. Baraniuk, JN. Follett, JV. Warwick, ZS. Aspartame and susceptibility to headache. N Engl J. Med 317(19):1181-1885, 1987.

Schiffmann, SS. Massey, EW. Headache susceptibility and aspartame. Neurology 38:112, 1988.

22. Shaywitz, BA. Sullivan, CM. Anderson, GM. Gillespie, SM. Sullivan, B. Shaywitz, SE. Aspartame, behavior, and cognitive function in children with attention deficit disorder. Pediatrics 93(1):70-75, 1994.

Shaywitz, BA. Sullivan, CM. Anderson, GM. Gillespie, SM. Sullivan, B. Shaywitz, SE. Aspartame does not affect behavior and cognitive function in children with attention deficit disorder. Pediatr Res 33(4Pt2):17A, 1993.

Shaywitz, BA. Sullivan, CM. Anderson, GM. Gillespie, SM. Sullivan, B. Shaywitz, SE. Evaluation of aspartame on behavior and cognitive function in children with attention-deficit disorder (add). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15(3):407, 1993.

23. Shaywitz, BA. Anderson, GM. Novotny, EJ. Ebersole, JS. Sullivan, CM. Gillespie, SM. Aspartame has no effect on seizures or epileptiform discharges in epileptic children. Ann Neurol 35(1):98-103, 1994.

Shaywitz, BA. Novotny, EJ. Ebersole, JS. Anderson, GM. Sullivan, CM. Gillespie, SM. Aspartame does not provoke seizures in children with epilepsy. Ann Neurol 32(3):436, 1992.

24. Canty, DJ. Chan, MM. Effects of consumption of caloric vs. noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr 53(5):1159-64, 1991.

Canty, DJ. Chan, MM. The effect of consumption of caloric versus noncaloric sweet drinks or indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults. J Am Diet Assoc 88(9s):53, 1988.

25. Goldman, JA. Lerman, RH. Contois, JH. Udall, JN. Sucrose ingestion, activity and task orientation. Pediatr Res 18:S104A, 1984.

Goldman, JA. Lerman, RH. Contois, JH. Udall, JN. Behavioral effects of sucrose on preschool children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 14(4):565-577, 1986.

26. Garriga, M. Berkebile, C. Metcalfe, D. A combined, single-blind, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the responsibility of hypersensitivity reactions to aspartame. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87(4):821-827, 1991.

Garriga, MM. Berkebile, C. Metcalfe, DD. Results of a thirty-two month study to identify aspartame sensitive subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85 (1pt2):275, 1990.

27. Lapierre, KA. Greenblatt, DJ. Goddard, JE. Shader, RI. Neuropsychiatric effects of aspartame in normal volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 28(10):913, 1988.

Lapierre, KA. Greenblatt, DJ. Goddard, JE. Harmatz, JS. Shader, RI. The neuropsychiatric effects of aspartame in normal volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 30:454-460, 1990.

28. Leon, AS. Hunninghake, DE. Safety of chronic consumption of large doses of aspartame (apm). FASEB J 2:A633, 1988.

Leon, AS. Hunninghake, DB. Bell, C. Rassin, DK. Tephly, TR. Safety of long- term large doses of aspartame. Arch Int Med 149(10):2318-2324, 1989.

29. Mackey, SA. Berlin, CM. Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of tyrosine and phenylalanine in homozygous pku. Pediatr Res 27(4pt2):110A, 1990.

Mackey, SA. Berlin, CM. Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in normal and mozygous phenylketonuric patients. Clin Pediatr July:394-399, 1992.

30. McAnulty, P. Collier, M. Enticott, J. Tesh, J. Mayhew, D. Comer, P. Hjelle, J. Kotsonis, F. Absence of developmental effects of CF-1 mice exposed to aspartame in utero. Fundam Appl Toxicol 13:296-302, 1989.

McAnulty, P. Collier, M. Tesh, J. Mayhew, D. Hjelle, JJ. Development of offspring of CF-1 mice exposed to aspartame in utero. Pharmacologist 29:155, 1987.

McAnulty, PA. Collier, MJ. Tesh, JM. Mayhew, DA. Kotsonis, FN. Hjelle, JJ. Postnatal development of CF-1 mice following exposure to aspartame during gestation. Teratology 39(2):24A, 1988.

31. Meldrum, BS. Nanji, N. Cornell, RG. Lack of effect of aspartame or of 1-phenylalanine on photically induced myoclonus in the baboon, papio papio. Epilepsy Res 4:1-7, 1989.

Meldrum, B. Nanji, N. Lack of effect of large doses of aspartame on photically-induced seizures in the baboon (papio papio). FASEB J 2:A434, 1988.

32. Mullenix, P. Tassinari, M. Kernan, WJ. Large oral doses of aspartame do not alter spontaneous rat behavior. FASEBJ 2:A1385, 1988.

Mullenix, PH. Tassinari, Ms. Schunior, A. Kernan, WJ. No change in spontaneous behavior of rats after acute oral doses of aspartame, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Fundam Appl Toxicol 18:495-505, 1991.

33. Nehrling, JK. Horwitz, DL. Aspartame is not associated with adverse reactions in persons with diabetes. Diabetes 33(suppl 1):6A, 1984.

Nehrling, JK. Kobe, P. McLane, MP. Olson, RE. Kamath, S. Horwitz, DL. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes. Diabetes Care 8(5):415-417, 1985.

Nehrling, JK. Kamath, SK. Kobe, P. McLane, MP. Olson, RE. Horwitz, DL. Lipid and hormonal effects of aspartame ingestion in diabetes. Fed Proc 45(4):976, 1986.

Virtually all journals require that an affidavit be signed by all authors to the effect that neither the manuscript nor the data it contains have been previously published or concurrently submitted elsewhere for publication. Violation of this policy may have a detrimental impact on scientific progress and ethics.

Tables 1 and 2 clearly raise deeply troubling questions not only regarding the safety of aspartame, but more broadly challenge the current practice of industry sponsorship of research.

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